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## Subexponential Parameterized Algorithm for Interval Completion

In the Interval Completion problem we are given an *n*-vertex graph *G* and an integer *k*, and the task is to transform *G* by making use of at most *k*edge additions into an interval graph. This is a fundamental graph modification problem with applications in sparse matrix multiplication and molecular biology. The question about fixed-parameter tractability of Interval Completion was asked by Kaplan et al. [FOCS 1994; SIAM J. Comput. 1999] and was answered affirmatively more than a decade later by Villanger et al. [STOC 2007; SIAM J. Comput. 2009], who presented an algorithm with running time *O*(*k*2*k**n*3*m*). We give the first subexponential parameterized algorithm solving Interval Completion in time *k**O*(&sqrt;*k*)*n**O*(1). This adds Interval Completion to a very small list of parameterized graph modification problems solvable in subexponential time.

Clustering is a well-known and important problem with numerous applications. The graph-based model is one of the typical cluster models. In the graph model generally clusters are defined as cliques. However, such approach might be too restrictive as in some applications, not all objects from the same cluster must be connected. That is why different types of cliques relaxations often considered as clusters. In our work, we consider a problem of partitioning graph into clusters and a problem of isolating cluster of a special type where by cluster we mean highly connected subgraph. Initially, such clusterization was proposed by Hartuv and Shamir. And their HCS clustering algorithm was extensively applied in practice. It was used to cluster cDNA fingerprints, to find complexes in protein-protein interaction data, to group protein sequences hierarchically into superfamily and family clusters, to find families of regulatory RNA structures. The HCS algorithm partitions graph in highly connected subgraphs. However, it is achieved by deletion of not necessarily the minimum number of edges. In our work, we try to minimize the number of edge deletions. We consider problems from the parameterized point of view where the main parameter is a number of allowed edge deletions. The presented algorithms significantly improve previous known running times for the Highly Connected Deletion (improved from \cOs\left(81^k\right) to \cOs\left(3^k\right)), Isolated Highly Connected Subgraph (from \cOs(4^k) to \cOs\left(k^{\cO\left(k^{\sfrac{2}{3}}\right)}\right) ), Seeded Highly Connected Edge Deletion (from \cOs\left(16^{k^{\sfrac{3}{4}}}\right) to \cOs\left(k^{\sqrt{k}}\right)) problems. Furthermore, we present a subexponential algorithm for Highly Connected Deletion problem if the number of clusters is bounded. Overall our work contains three subexponential algorithms which is unusual as very recently there were known very few problems admitting subexponential algorithms.

In the Interval Completion problem we are given an n-vertex graph *G* and an integer *k*, and the task is to transform *G* by making use of at most *k*edge additions into an interval graph. This is a fundamental graph modification problem with applications in sparse matrix multiplication and molecular biology. The question about fixed-parameter tractability of Interval Completion was asked by Kaplan, Shamir and Tarjan [FOCS 1994; SIAM J. Comput. 1999] and was answered affirmatively more than a decade later by Villanger at el. [STOC 2007; SIAM J. Comput. 2009], who presented an algorithm with running time *O*(*k*2*k**n*3*m*). We give the first subexponential parameterized algorithm solving Interval Completion in time *k**O*([EQUATION])*n**O*(1). This adds Interval Completion to a very small list of parameterized graph modification problems solvable in subexponential time.

We prove that in a graph with *n* vertices, induced chordal and interval subgraphs with the maximum number of vertices can be found in time 2^(𝜆𝑛) for some 𝜆<1. These are the first algorithms breaking the trivial 2^𝑛 poly(n) bound of the brute-force search for these problems.

We study the Maximum Happy Vertices and Maximum Happy Edges problems. The former problem is a variant of clusterization, where some vertices have already been assigned to clusters. The second problem gives a natural generalization of Multiway Uncut, which is the complement of the classical Multiway Cut problem. Due to their fundamental role in theory and practice, clusterization and cut problems has always attracted a lot of attention. We establish a new connection between these two classes of problems by providing a reduction between Maximum Happy Vertices and Node Multiway Cut. Moreover, we study structural and distance to triviality parameterizations of Maximum Happy Vertices and Maximum Happy Edges. Obtained results in these directions answer questions explicitly asked in four works: Agrawal ’17, Aravind et al. ’16, Choudhari and Reddy ’18, Misra and Reddy ’17.

In the Shortest Superstring problem we are given a set of strings S=\{s_1, \ldots , s_n\} and integer \ell and the question is to decide whether there is a superstring *s* of length at most \ellcontaining all strings of *S* as substrings. We obtain several parameterized algorithms and complexity results for this problem. In particular, we give an algorithm which in time 2^{\mathcal {O}(k)} {\text {poly}}(n) finds a superstring of length at most \ell containing at least *k* strings of *S*. We complement this by a lower bound showing that such a parameterization does not admit a polynomial kernel up to some complexity assumption. We also obtain several results about “below guaranteed values” parameterization of the problem. We show that parameterization by compression admits a polynomial kernel while parameterization “below matching” is hard.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.