825 Theory and Practical Application of Valve Technology

For Whom Intended  This course is intended for personnel involved in specifying, selecting, purchasing or using valves. Degreed engineers whose primary training is not in this field will benefit, as will technicians, quality assurance inspectors and manufacturing engineers. Course 825 will also benefit managers and supervisors in charge of these functions.

Brief Course Description  The course introduces valves and valve components, and then discusses flow dynamics as related to valves.

The construction of valves and materials is covered, along with valve leakage. This is followed by a general discussion of valve trim, characteristics, actuators and positioners. A more detailed discussion of globe valves and gate valves covers valve variations and component options.

Valves in a control system are covered next, including sizing and selection of valves. This is followed with a discussion of check valves and some variations available. Types of safety valves are covered along with selection, sizing and standards.

The course then covers in detail different types of valve available with a description and discussion of how each type functions. Next, the instructor covers valves in application and use including the selection of valves, valve bodies, valve trim, valve actuator and valve packing. The final section addresses valve safety and emergency shut off valves.

Diploma Programs This course is required for TTi’s Piping, Valves and Pump Specialist (PV&PS) Diploma Program. It may be used as an optional course for any TTi specialist diploma program.

Related Courses  TTi is developing a complete pipes and valves curriculum, including Course 631, on safety lockout and tagout procedures, Course 651 on Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID), Course 652 on piping system layout and design, Course 652 on pipe support design, Course 654 on pipe inspection and maintenance and Course 820 on pump technology.

Text Each student will receive access to the on-line electronic course workbook, including most of the presentation slides. An initial subscription is included in the price of the course and renewals are available for an additional fee. Printed textbooks are also available for purchase.

Prerequisites  There are no definite prerequisites. This course is aimed toward individuals actively involved in related technical fields.

Course Hours, Certificate and CEUs  Open courses meet seven hours per day. Upcoming presentation dates can be found on our current open course schedule. Class hours/days for on-site courses can vary from 14-35 hours over 2-5 days as requested by our clients. Upon successful course completion, each participant receives a certificate of completion and one Continuing Education Unit (CEU) for every ten class hours.

Click for a printable course outline (pdf).


Course Outline

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Valves

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Definition of a Valve
  • Description of a Valve
  • Types of Valves
  • Valve Actuation

Chapter 2 - Valves and Flow Dynamics

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Conservation of Mass
  • Basic Control Theory
    • Velocity And Pressure Distribution
    • Flow Coefficient, Cv
    • Velocity Profiles
    • Flat “Ideal” Velocity Profile
    • Laminar “Parabolic” Velocity Profile
    • Turbulent Velocity Profile
    • Reynolds Number
  • Pressure
  • Energy
  • Potential Energy
  • Kinetic Energy
  • Sound
  • Heat Energy
  • Liquid and Gas
    • Vaporization
    • Phase Diagrams

Chapter 3 - Valve Construction and Materials

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Introduction
  • Isolation Valve
  • Valve Body
  • Valve Motion
  • Standards and why are they needed
    • API—Valve Standards
    • Size and Pressure Ratings
    • Preferred Series of ANSI and DN Pipe Sizes
    • Preferred Series of ANSI Class and PN Pressures
    • ANSI Leakage Classification
    • ANSI Class VI Maximum Seat Leakage
  • A Practical Leakage Example

Chapter 4 - Valve Types

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Globe Valve
  • Gate Valve
  • Check Valve
  • Relief Valve
  • Safety Relief Valve
  • Angle Valve
  • Needle Valve
  • Bar Stock Body Valve
  • Pinch Valve
  • Diaphragm Valve
  • Rotary Control Valves
  • Ball Valves
    • Full Ball Valve
    • Trunnion Ball Valve
    • V-Notch Ball Valve
    • Ball Valve Flow Characteristics
    • Ball Segment Valves
  • Butterfly Valves
    • Conventional Center-Disc Butterfly Valve
    • Fishtail Disc
    • High Performance Butterfly Valve
    • Advantages of Offset Disc Butterfly Valves
    • Butterfly Valve Flow Characteristics
  • Plug Valves
    • Conventional Plug Valve
    • Plug Valve Seal Types
    • Eccentric Plug Valves
    • Advantages of Plug Valves
  • Air Valves
  • Emergency Shut Down Valve

Chapter 5 - Valve Trim and Characteristics

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Valve Trim
    • Types of Seats and Seals
    • Valve Functional Characteristics
  • Valve Characterization
    • Inherent Flow Characteristics
    • Characteristic Profiling
    • Simple Disc Shaped Plug
    • Plug Outlines
    • Cage-guided Trim, Flow Characterization
    • Inherent Flow Characteristics
    • Pump Flow Rate vs Discharge Pressure
    • Pressure Drop Ratio
    • Linear Flow Characteristic
    • Percentage Flow Characteristic
    • Linear vs Equal Percent Characteristic Selection
    • Cavitation Control
  • Trim Selection Guide—Liquid Applications
  • Cavitation Control Example
  • Plug Hard Surface Facing Variations

Chapter 6 - Valve Actuators and Positioners

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Valve Actuators
    • Pneumatic Control
    • Flapper-Nozzle Assembly
    • I/P Converter Configuration
    • Diaphragm Actuators
    • Springless Actuator
    • Cylinder Actuators
    • Swing Jet Controller
    • Electric Actuation
    • Digital Actuation
  • Valve Positioners
    • Basic Pneumatic Positioner
    • Pneumatic Spool Assembly
    • Benefits Of Valve Positioners
    • Benefits of Digital Valve Positioners

Chapter 7 - Globe Valves

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Bonnet Assembly
  • Packing Box (Stuffing Box)
    • A Typical Packing Box Assembly
    • Packing Material
    • Standard V-ring Packing Arrangement
    • Double Graphite Packing Arrangement
  • Laminated Graphite
  • Galvanic Series
  • Extended Bonnet
  • Valve Trim
    • Valve Plug
    • Valve Seat Ring
  • Guiding
    • Post Guiding
    • Top and Bottom Guided Double Seat
    • Single Ported Balanced Globe Valve
    • Cage Guiding
  • Split Body Globe

Chapter 8 - Gate Valves

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Description
  • Gate Valve Components
  • Gate Valve Use
  • Typical Gate Valve
  • Sliding Gate Regulator Valve
  • V-Insert Gate Valve
  • Gate Valve Flow/Travel Characteristics
  • Gate Valve Trim
  • Disc Design
    • Disc Design, Tapered Disc
    • Disc Design, Parallel Disc
  • Body-Bonnet Design
    • Screwed Body-Bonnet Joint
    • Bolted Body-Bonnet Joint
    • Pressure Seal Body-Bonnet Joint
    • Welded Body-Bonnet Joint
  • Stem Design
    • Inside Screw Rising Stem Valves
    • Non Rising Stem Valves
  • Outside Screw and Yoke Valves
  • Knife Gate Valves
  • Sluice Gate Valves
  • Isolation Gate Valves
  • Rising Stem and Rotating Stem Gate Valves
  • Gate Valve Specifications
  • Materials of Construction
  • Gate Valve Actuation
    • Wedge Pinch
    • Electric Motors to Address Wedge Pinch
  • Designing for Gate Valves
    • Sliding Gate Valves, Variations
  • Repair of Gate Valves
  • Operation of Gate Valves
    • Operating Force of Gate Valves
    • Calculating Valve Stem Thrust
  • Gate Valve Example

Chapter 9 - Control Valves (including Control Basics)

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • What Is A Control Valve?
  • Final Control Element
  • Varying Fluid Properties
  • Control Valve Function
  • Cause of Poor Functioning
  • Four Basic Elements Of Any Control System
  • Four Basic Elements of A Control System
  • Process Gain, Example

Chapter 10 - Check Valves

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Introduction to Check Valves
    • Check Valve Attributes
  • Basic Designs of Check Valves
    • Swing Check Valves
    • Horizontal Lift Check Valves
    • Vertical Lift Check Valves
    • Ball Check Valve
    • Examples of Ball Check Valves
  • Variations Of Basic Designs
    • Stop Check Valve
    • Non Return Valve
  • Diaphragm Check Valves
  • Size, Temperature, and Pressure
  • Seat and Disk Angle Design
  • Application of Check Valves
  • Inspection Practice
  • Check Valve Repair Methods
    • Seats
    • Disks
    • Plugs
    • Grinding
  • Selection of Check Valves
    • Check Valves Selection Chart

Chapter 11 - Relief Valves

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Principles of Relief Valves
  • Maximum Pressure Considerations
  • Equipment, Regulators and Piping
  • Relief Valves
    • Popularity of Relief Valves
    • Four Types of Relief Valves
  • Selection Criteria
    • Pressure Buildup
    • Periodic Maintenance
    • Cost Versus Performance
    • Installation and Maintenance Considerations
  • Pop Type Relief Valve
    • Operation
    • Typical Applications
    • Advantages, Disadvantages
  • Direct-Operated Relief Valves
    • Operation
    • Schematic
    • With Pitot Tube
    • Typical Applications
    • Selection Criteria
  • Pilot-Operated Relief Valves
    • Example
    • Typical Applications
    • Selection Criteria
  • Relief Valve Selection and Sizing Criteria
    • Regulator Ratings, Piping Max System Pressure
    • Determining Required Relief Valve Flow
    • Determine Constant Demand
    • Selecting Relief Valves, Required Information
  • Relief Valve Selection
    • Final Selection & Regulations
    • Capacity Curve

Chapter 12 - Safety Relief Valves

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Protecting Life And Property
  • Safety Relief Valve History
    • Papin
    • Glauber
  • Safety, Safety/Relief and Relief Valves
  • Safety Valves
    • Types
    • Harmonized Standards For Safety Valves
    • PrEN ISO 4126
  • Huddling and Blowdown
    • Blowdown Ring
    • Blowdown Adjustment
  • Safety Valve Nomenclature
  • Back Pressure Limits
  • Sizing of Pressure Relief Valves
  • Safety Valves—Commonly Used Terminology
  • Design Principles
    • Spring-Loaded Pressure Relief Valve
    • Pilot Operated Pressure Relief Valve
  • Rupture Disks
    • Performance Tolerance
    • Bursting Disk Performance Tolerance
    • Zero MR Bursting Disk Bursting Tolerance
    • Burst Tolerance
    • Maximum Operating Pressure
    • Bursting Disk Operating Pressure to Burst Pressure Ratios
    • Cyclic / Pulsating Duties
  • Downhole Safety Valve (DHSV)
    • Operation
    • Positioning
    • Deploying and Retrieving

Chapter 13 - Codes and Standards

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Historical Background
    • Boiler Disasters, New England
    • ASME’s Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
    • ASME Council Committee
    • ASME Council—Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
    • First Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
  • The International Standard
    • ASME B&PV Code, Individual Volumes
    • ASME B&PV Volume VIII
  • Pressure Equipment Directive, PED (European Directive 97/23/ED)
    • ASME vs PED
    • PED Definitions
  • Americal Petroleum Institute (API) Application Codes
    • Codes and Standards
    • ASME and API Codes for Relief Valves
    • ASME Code Requirements
    • Application Codes, API Practice
    • Inspection and Maintenance Codes
  • Testing (Set Pressure Verification)
  • Safety Valve Repair
  • Records, Data Registration and Summary

Final Review

Certificates for Successful Completion

Click for a printable course outline (pdf).